Abstract


Nietzsche's Criticisms of Socrates and Plato's Identity of Reason and Virtue and the Evaluation of These Criticisms in Terms of the Philosophy of Education

Philosophy has been an area based on questioning and curiosity, which, in its structure, meets people's desire to "know" for centuries. Man is an entity that wants to know and strives in this way, and this effort is possible with reason. Philosophy is that man tries to understand and illuminate the universe through reason. It uses the human mind to create a number of behavioral changes in itself, which is covered by education. In this context, it is an undeniable fact that there is a close relationship between education and philosophy. When it comes to education, many philosophers have directly or indirectly reconciled their philosophies with education. Two of them are Socrates and Plato. Socrates and Plato studied education in terms of philosophy. Socrates believed in the power of education and knowledge and glorified the mind in this way, he identified with virtue and knowledge, and Plato continued these views of Socrates, causing them to be criticized by Nietzsche. Socrates argues that as a moral philosopher, a moral life can bring happiness to man, but this is also possible in a rational way. His successor, Plato, also supports socrates' views. At this point, Nietzsche opposes the human being being beings. Because according to Nietzsche, the only way to treat a person as a mental being is to push his feelings aside. Such a situation is unacceptable to Nietzsche. A man is as much a presence of emotion as he is a mind being. From this point of view, Socrates' philosophy based on "happiness=virtue=reason" is not possible for Nietzsche. According to Nietzsche, happiness is more about instinct than reason. At this point, the reason for Nietzsche's criticism of Plato is that, as in Socrates, the mind is synonymous with virtue and virtue with happiness.



Keywords

Education, Philosophy, Reason, Morality


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